This document explains how pointers and memory work and how to use them—from the basic concepts through all the major programming techniques. For each topic there is a combination of discussion, sample C code, and drawings.


This document can be used as an introduction to pointers for someone with basic programming experience. Alternately, it can be used to review and to fill in gaps for someone with a partial understanding of pointers and memory. Many advanced programming and debugging problems only make sense with a complete understanding of pointers and memory — this document tries to provide that understanding. This document concentrates on explaining how pointers work. For more advanced pointer applications and practice problems, see the other resources below.


Like most CS Education Library documents, the coverage here tries to be complete but fast. The document starts with the basics and advances through all the major topics. The pace is fairly quick — each basic concept is covered once and usually there is some example code and a memory drawing. Then the text moves on to the next topic. For more practice, you can take the time to work through the examples and sample problems. Also, see the references below for more practice problems.


Topics include: pointers, local memory, allocation, deallocation, dereference operations, pointer assignment, deep vs. shallow copies, the ampersand operator (&), bad pointers, the NULL pointer, value parameters, reference parameters, heap allocation and deallocation, memory ownership models, and memory leaks. The text focuses on pointers and memory in compiled languages like C and C++. At the end of each section, there is some related but optional material, and in particular there are occasional notes on other languages, such as Java.

Nick Parlante

Nick Parlante has been teaching Computer Science at Stanford for over 20 years, and teaches programming best practices at Google. Nick has also produced the Google Python Class and code practice site, and the infamous Binky Pointer Fun video.