I slept infront of my laptop for a year while scaling Twitpic, rolling over to restart Apache at 2am before drifting back to sleep, but when you're a startup- you do what you have to do.

What if your didn't have any single points of failure? Imagine if scaling wasn't frustrating and you could get back to what you do best- shipping code?

I'm going to teach you how to scale PHP

Stop playing sysadmin and get back to coding

You didn't sign up to put out fires and figuring out how to scale MySQL isn't exactly going to ship features any faster. You know that learning the intricaces of my.cnf is a waste of time, but you don't have another choice. In the book, you'll get a crash-course on every important tuning option, why it matters, and a quick formula to figure out the perfect settings for your hardware. Bliss.

Apache is crying itself to sleep everynight

You've heard alot about Nginx and horizontal scaling, and there're thousands of tutorials out there, but the quality ranges from abysmal to _"this must be a joke"_, and when you finally find a good one, it's usually for Rails. I know what it's like to scramble around, reading bad advice on StackOverflow, copy-and-pasting config files from some message board hope that one of them finally works... pulling at your hair, swearing at the screen.

What if it didn't have to be this way? What if there was a single, high-quality resource of information on _scaling PHP_, on doing things the right way, that actually focused on PHP and not Rails, Node.js or the flavor of the week? Something that taught you scalable architecture and things you might run into when your only user isn't your mom?

The perfect PHP stack, LHNMPRR

Okay, okay- nothing will ever be as catchy as LAMP ;-)

You'll master a new, more scalable stack called LHNMPRR (Linux, HAProxy, Nginx, MySQL, PHP, Redis, & Resque) that can scale just by throwing more hardware at. You'll be able to finally get your setup to be perfect, all while using a battle tested stack that's been proven to handle billions of requests.

Think of it as your Cheat Code for PHP <?php ↑↑↓↓←→←→BA ?>

Aren't you tired of the terrible PHP tutorials out there? You know, the ones from 2003 that still use mysql_connect and not PDO? It took over 6 months to put together 200 pages of high-quality, easy-to-read content that covers the best performing and most bleeding-edge PHP architecture.

Steve Corona

I'm Steve Corona and I've spent the last 4 years scaling Twitpic to handle 60m visitors and 20 billion requests per month.

I live in Charleston, SC and blog about life hacking.

On Twitter, I'm @stevencorona.

  • Preface * How this book came to be

    • How this book is designed

    • Who should read this book?

    • What you need for this book

    • What you’ll learn

    • Why you need this book

    • Rule Numero Uno

  • Ditching the LAMP Stack * What’s wrong with LAMP?

    • The Scalable Stack
  • DNS: Why you need to care * DNS Load Distribution

    • DNS Resolution
  • Load Balancing with HAProxy * HAProxy

    • Choosing the best hardware

    • Automatic failover with keepalived

    • Tuning linux for a network heavy load

    • Issues at scale

  • App Server: Horizontal Scaling with Nginx and PHP-FPM * Choosing the right version of PHP

    • Nginx and PHP-FPM

    • Choosing the best hardware for your application server

    • Using a PHP Opcode cache

    • Tuning Linux for PHP

    • Scaling session handling

  • Database Server: Ultimate MySQL Tuning Guide * Getting NoSQL Performance out of MySQL

    • Dealing with libmysql’s inability to set timeouts

    • Tuning your MySQL Configuration

    • Tuning Linux for an intensive database

    • Load balancing MySQL Slaves

    • Accepting the Master as a SPOF

    • Understanding issues with NUMA

    • Choosing the best hardware

    • Online Schema Changes

    • Further Topics

  • Cache Server: Using Redis * Choosing between Redis, Memcached, and APC

    • Redis Commands

    • The importance of Atomic Operations

    • Performance Limitations of Redis

    • Installing Redis from Dotdeb

    • Installing the phpredis C extension

    • Tuning Redis for Performance

    • Scaling Redis to Multiple Servers

    • “The Dogpile”

    • Russian Doll Caching

    • Redis Bitmaps

    • Redis Notification Feeds

  • Worker Server: Asynchronous Resque Workers * Why use Queues?

    • Getting started with Resque and php-resque

    • Writing a Resque Job

    • Alternatives to Resque

    • Things you should put in a queue

  • Coding and Debugging at Scale * Scaling your code

    • Capistrano for code deployment

    • Live Debugging PHP with strace

  • Parting Advice * Want to upgrade?

    • Sending Feedback and Testimonials

    • In too deep? Need help ASAP?

    • Updates?

    • About the Author

  • Case Study: Horizontally scaling user uploads

  • Case Study: How DNS took down Twitpic down for 4 hours

  • Case Study: Scaling MySQL Vertically (10 to 3 MySQL Servers w/ SSDs)

  • Case Study: Hot MySQL Backups w/ Percona * Moving from mysqldump to Percona XtraBackup

  • Case Study: Async APIs w/ Kestrel saved my butt

  • Case Study: The missing guide to Memcached * Choosing Memcached over Redis?

    • Installing Memcached

    • Hooking up PHP to Memcached

    • Protocols

    • Compression and Serialization

    • Server Pools

    • Atomic Counters

    • Avoiding the Rat Race: CAS Tokens

    • Watch out for timeouts

    • Using Memcached for Sessions

    • Debugging Memcached from Telnet

    • My Memcached Setup

    • Further Reading and Tools

  • Case Study: HTTP Caching and the Nginx Fastcgi Cache * Caching Static Assets

    • Caching Proxy
  • Case Study: CakePHP Framework Caching * CakePHP, you devilish dessert

    • The life and death of a CakePHP request

    • If it smells like a race condition…

    • Busting the assumptions

    • Now what? I’m out of ideas

    • The solution(s)

  • Case Study: Optimizing image handling in PHP * The naive “PHP Tutorial” way

    • ImageMagick vs GraphicsMagick

    • Allowing Large File Uploads

    • Stripping EXIF Metadata

    • Autorotation

  • Case Study: Benchmarking and Load Testing Web Services * Setting up a Test Environment

    • The famous ab (Apache Benchmark)

    • Siege, a more modern ab

    • Bees with machine guns

    • Sysbench

  • Sponsors