A closure is a first-class function that refers to (closes over) variables from the scope in which it was defined. If the closure still exists after its defining scope ends, the variables it closes over will continue to exist as well.

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Closures are extremely valuable if you know how to use them. The problem is that many JavaScript developers don't know how to use them. After reading this guide I hope you will have a good grasp of what a closure is, how it works, and when to use them.


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Closures are a fundamental JavaScript concept that every serious programmer should know inside-out.


A closure is a special type of anonymous function that references variables declared outside of the function itself.