Programming language constructs designed to handle errors signaled by error codes, exceptions or other language specific means.

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In the world of professional software development, the way your application fails is exactly as important as the way it succeeds.

Write actionable error messages that laypeople can understand.

A good error message should not only point out a problem in your code. It should also indicate that a solution is available.

To err is human. Errors occur when people engage with user interfaces. Sometimes, they happen because users make mistakes. Sometimes, they happen because an app fails. Whatever the cause, these errors and how they are handled, have a huge impact on the user experience. Bad error handling paired with useless error messages can fill users with frustration, and can lead to users abandoning your app.

Errors make you perfect. It’s failure that gives meaning to success. When people interact with user interfaces, it is pretty normal for errors to happen. And yes, how can we forget forms? Form filling has never been a simple task for the users. Even if you think you have eased it out a lot, still visitors will make mistakes. Now, how do you confront them? Error messages do the trick. But wait a minute? Do your error messages make them fret or reassure them? Error messages that disturb the users make them leave the form and search for comfort somewhere else.

Each error message is a tiny roadblock that gets in the way of what we were trying to do. Depending on the context, an unhelpful message can be the difference between continuing or giving up. There’s even some research to suggest that there’s a physical stress response: error messages can raise cortisol levels.