A relational database is a database consisting of relation variables (which are also called *relvars*, *R-tables* or just *tables*). The definition, manipulation and integrity rules of relational databases are based on relational operations equivalent to or similar to the Relational Algebra and Calculus. Relational database principles are the basis of a substantial part of data management theory and practice.

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In one way, sharding is the best way to scale. Sharding enables you to linearly scale your database’s cpu, memory, and disk resources by separating your database into smaller parts. In other ways, sharding is a controversial topic.

Say you’re AWS, and the task in hand is to take an existing relational database (MySQL) and retrofit it to work well in a cloud-native environment. Where do you start? What are the key design considerations and how can you accommodate them?